Communication without being physically connected to cables has always been interesting and mobile and wireless communication networks promise it. In recent years there has been unprecedented growth in wireless communication networks. Significant progress has been made in technologies that support the wireless communication environment and there is much more to it in the future. Devices used for wireless communication require some features that wired communication devices may not necessarily need. These features include low energy consumption, lightness and communication skills around the world.
In wireless and mobile communication networks, access to a communication network is wireless so that end users remain free to move. The rest of the communication path could be wired, wireless, or combined by the two. In general, a mobile user, during communication, has a wireless connection with a fixed communication function and the rest of the communication path remains wired. The range of wireless communications is always limited and therefore the user’s range of mobility is also limited. To overcome this limitation, the cellular communication environment has been devised. In a cellular communication environment, a geographic region is divided into smaller regions called cells, hence the cell name. Each cell has a fixed communication device that serves all mobile devices within that cell. However, as a mobile device, during active communication, it moves from one cell and to another cell, the service of that connection is transferred from one cell to another. This is called the delivery process. The cellular arrangement has many interesting features. Because cell sizes are small, mobile devices don’t need very high transmission power to communicate. This leads to smaller devices that consume less energy.
In addition, it is well known that the frequency spectrum that can be used for wireless communication is limited and therefore can support only a small number of wireless communication connections at a time. Splitting communication regions into cells allows the same frequency to be used in different cells, as long as they are separated enough to avoid interference. This increases the number of mobile devices that can be supported. Advances in digital signal processing algorithms and faster electronics have led to very powerful, smaller, more elegant and versatile mobile communication devices. These devices have huge mobile communication capabilities, including wireless Internet access, wireless email and news, and wireless (albeit limited) video communication on mobile devices. Wireless phones are now available and operate in different communication environments on all continents. The day is not far off when a single communication number will be assigned to each newborn and will remain with that person regardless of their location.
Another area that is emerging rapidly is that of ad hoc wireless communication networks. These networks are temporary in nature and are established for a certain need and for a certain duration. No elaborate configuration is required to establish these networks. Because some mobile communication devices are in the vicinity of others, they can establish a communication network between them. Typical situations where you can use ad hoc wireless networks are in classroom environment, business meetings, conferences,
disaster recovery situations, etc. Once the network need is met, the ad hoc network configuration disappears.